The first database covers VII. From the very beginning, the prototype as well as the final instrument has been designed to operate in autonomous mode, with minimum human supervision, although remote control via Internet is possible as well. The burst recognition algorithm automatically detected a new object [ 17 ]. The shutter is based on voice-coil principle used, that is, to control read-write heads in hard disks. We have designed a special, mechanically durable shutter, which can sustain about opening cycles. In addition, we have presented results of searches for flare stars, novae, and other optical transients, which are performed off-line. Tests of the real-time flash recognition algorithms revealed that the most common background sources are flashes due to cosmic rays hitting the CCD and near-Earth flashes from the Sun light reflections from satellites.

Gamma-Ray Burst Symposium , vol. A light curve of V Car is shown on Figure An algorithm searching for short optical flashes by comparing a new image with the stack of recently taken frames has been developed. Another script is checking all status files every 5 minutes and is able to automatically identify the problem in a single status file or combine information from several files. We are currently working on visual inspection of light curves and types of variability determination for these stars. It is almost certain that bursts are due to collapsing massive stars or merging of two neutron stars [ 15 ]. The dedicated software performs an on-line search for optical transients.

With such a large number of opening cycles, a really heavy-duty shutter is a must. A separate off-line algorithm has been developed in order to search for outbursts of flare stars. However, no coincidence with any satellite GRB 7eem was detected. This file contains all important information about the current state of the module and 7tem contains information if any problem was self-detected by this particular module. It consists of two specially designed CCD cameras observing the same field of view with a time resolution of 10 seconds.

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Such algorithm gives good results as far as search for novae and other variable stars and planetoids is concerned. During a few seconds its brightness raised by a factor of and then faded away during several minutes. Soon it becomes obvious that with money we had we could only dream about buying detector components from a shelf; so we decided to build the detector from the scratch on our own. The system is in the final construction phase now.


The AoV method [ 30 ] was used to determine periods and reject stars with false variability.

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The dedicated software performs an on-line search for optical transients. Classification based on the shape of light curves was performed by a visual inspection. As sultah has been demonstrated by the future development, this decision was right and has proved to be the key to success of the whole project.

Observations of this unique GRB continued for weeks afterwards, following fading afterglow, and provided important clues to sultsn of a mechanism of the GRB emission.

The algorithm is still being developed and tested. An interpretation has been proposed that optical emission arises from synchrotron emission and the high-energy gamma emission comes from a synchrotron self-Compton process. Gamma Ray Bursts were discovered more than 40 years ago.

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Catalog of variable stars. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. On the image taken before the outburst, the star was not visible. We have designed a special, mechanically durable shutter, which can sustain about opening cycles.

Here the proper strategy for searching of a GRB optical emission, like for a needle in a hay stack, could be based on a multilevel trigger scheme well-known from particle physics experiments searching for rare events, which could be, for example, footprints of creation of a new particle.

The whole system is capable of continuous observation of about 2 steradians of the sky, which roughly corresponds to the field of view of the Swift BAT instrument [ 3 ].

Because of the field of view which is smaller than for the final telescope, the prototype cameras follow, for most of the time, the center of the Swift’s BAT FoV.

The software takes decision about repointing automatically. We did not only build, for example, CCD cameras for less money but also could design these cameras with features which later turned out to be crucial. The first dwarf nova 1RXS J We have selected about stars for further analysis. As it is well known now, the optical flash seasoj so strong that for about 40 seconds it could even be seen with a naked eye, without any instruments.


View at Google Scholar A. Systematic observations of the whole visible sky are important for investigation of objects with variability timescale from hours to days and longer.

It is very likely that most of flashes visible in a single frame are sunlight reflexes from satellites, which have not been recognized by our algorithms. The limiting magnitude for a single frame is and rises to approximately for a frame stacked from 20 exposures. Luckily, this was the second burst that night. Such electronic brake slows down speed of the shutter and reduces the stresses to the mechanism.

In order to ensure full control over the detector design and construction, we have decided to build custom-design CCD cameras. However, this approach causes an unavoidable delay of the optical observations with respect to the GRB event and it does not allow for catching the optical emission from the source exactly at the moment or before the GRB explosion.

The standard approach to look for optical afterglow associated with GRBs is to wait for satellite alerts distributed by the GCN network The Gamma Ray Burst Coordinates Network [ 1 ] and move the telescope to start observations of the target as fast as possible seaason 2 ]. They would like to thank the staff of the Las Campanas for their help during the installation of the apparatus.

In practice such systems are probably the only choice to observe the prompt optical emission from the gamma ray bursts in a systematic way. Even a very fast reaction to a GCN alert cannot guarantee the detection of the prompt emission.

It is certain that multiwavelength observation of prompt emission can reveal hints which eventually will allow us to construct a robust theory of the central engine mechanism or mechanisms. Before construction of the full system, the necessary hardware and software tests were performed using a prototype. It also sends an information to the person in charge every time when detector reacts to a GCN alert and moves to the GRB’s position.

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