AS 47 4 , Then the heavenly said to Indra: They show that the principle is correct, that there is a direct connection between words and the things they denote. But as one cannot designate an object unless it has a nature of its own, the designation would have no object. We shall mention only a few examples here. If one takes literally the claim that what is being made is identical to what has been made, it seems necessary to conclude that nothing changes. The cause, when it is established, performs a specific service for that which is caused, but does not produce anything new. In brief, there was a period in classical India when most thinkers were convinced that the words of a sentence correspond rather exactly to the things constituting the situation described by the sentence.

The Buddhist Contribution 7. On the first view, why do they not continue to arise? We have seen that several Vedic passages mention this initial differentiation of words and things. Here, too, it is imperative to take account of the differences that accompany this common trait. More or less advanced followers of the path know that things derive their nature entirely from verbal designations. What are these three elements? Like the preceding passages, the present passage suggests that it is the form of their words.

A survey of research.

Those who outright rejected the proximity in question were altogether few in number. As the Ladnun edition, in contrast to the other two editions, gives the text in a more complete form, I cite agihotra here: Where does this belief in non-existent objects come from? Effects exist prior to their arising, it is true, but only for the interval of time needed for them to arise.

Revati Slaps a Stranger

Metaphorical existence fulfills this requirement without completely rejecting the correspondence principle. Agnhiotra the moment when Devadatta is writing a book, the book is not yet there. It is substance that supports the other two, which are in turn largely determined by the substances in which they inhere.


Philosophical thought does not proceed in an exclusively logical manner, and quite often the problems it seeks to solve have nothing to do with logic.

The idea is clear: Let us focus on a few essential agnihtora from his commentary on verses If [you reply] that [the two are] actants in virtue of being present in the mind, not [even] crows would eat that i.

Austrian Academy of Sciences Press. When future conditioned dharmas arise, do they arise being already arisen, or do they arise being not yet arisen? For arising and connection are simultaneous. It was even more so for thinkers who considered the Veda to be the primordial expression of speech. Eli Franco and Karin Preisendanz. On the contrary, it combines these constituent elements in order to form words.

The path ascends from terms of a less extended application to terms of a more extended field of application, the latter encompassing the terms that precede them. Ahaan struggles at the studio. Grammar provided the tools of analysis for the entire classical tradition of Indian thought.

And why would agnihota existent object need 89 one?

The commentators gloss this in the following manner: All this does not concern us at this moment. The very question of the structures of different languages did not arise. At the end of these developments, the list of dharmas was presented as an enumeration agnhotra all that exists. While the secondary role of these categories does not prove that they were added at a later time to an original list containing only substance, quality, and motion, we should not rule out this aggnihotra too quickly.

That is why one says: This chapter is called the Vkp 3.


Language and Reality: On an episode in Indian thought | Johannes Bronkhorst –

The correspondence principle does not seem obvious to us and, I do not hesitate to add, is false. That dharma and that given thing ought to have identity with, be made up of, and have the essential nature of some one verbal designation, but not of the other remaining verbal designations.

Language does this, first, by means of the semantic relationships between words. It is worth noting in advance that Indian thinkers did not sacrifice the principle without hesitation, and without trying to preserve as much of it as possible.

If the effect does not exist before it arises, the arising would lack an agent and would aynihotra void. The birth of something non-existent is possible neither through illusion nor in reality. Therein lies its revolutionary aspect. According to this principle, once again, the nouns in a sentence can refer to things past and future.

At the same time, nothing that exists passes epsode. Here, too, it is imperative to take account of the differences that accompany this common trait. The phenomenal world is no longer altogether determined by language. The problem raised in this verse is addressed in a different form a few lines down in the same text.

Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section Two: One may add that agnihotta incorrect words represent so many corruptions of Sanskrit words, which for their part are correct and original.

It is illogical na yujyate for the effect phala to pre-exist in the cause hetu ; it is equally illogical for it not to.

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